*Must include essay outline and essay. Essay 4 is a "problem and solution" essay that will be written in three parts: an introduction that presents an overview of the problem, a middle section consisting of summaries of and responses to your two sources, and a conclusion. The sources that you summarize and respond to will discuss the problem (and perhaps offer solutions), and your conclusion will explain your thoughts on the best course of action for addressing the problem. Consider this essay a “bridge” essay in that it will begin to prepare you for the type of research writing you will take on in English 102. You will be choosing your own topic for this essay within the following parameters: The problem you investigate must be contemporary and based in the Philadelphia area The articles you use as sources must be reputable, focus on the Philadelphia region, and must have been written within the last 5 years (Please see this page for more info on choosing your sources: How to Find Sources for Essay 4.) You will want to choose a problem to discuss that is narrow enough in scope so that you can address it in an engaging, interesting, and in-depth way in an essay of at least 4 pages. Thoroughly reviewing the page called How to Choose a Focused Topic for Essay 4 on Canvas will help you to choose an appropriately narrowed-down topic. Audience: You are writing for your peers—intelligent and curious college students who are unfamiliar with the readings and topics discussed in this class. Structure Introduction (1-2 paragraphs): Get our attention with a clear and captivating hook. Then, in the background information section, you should then introduce the problem. Describe the problem, why it is a problem, and perhaps how it became a problem. You will likely want to use information from one or both of your two sources here, making sure to appropriately introduce and cite any sources you use. Also in the background information section, you may want to discuss your prior knowledge of and/or interest in this problem. You can also discuss why this problem is important to you, and why it should be important to the reader, perhaps drawing on your own or others' experiences. Your thesis, which can be one or two sentences, should do the following: sum up the problem mention the two sources your essay will primarily use briefly mention the solution Body Paragraphs (3-4 paragraphs): Summary and response to your two sources Be sure to use the materials provided in Canvas to help you select your sources. Please organize your body paragraphs according to one of the following patterns: Pattern A: A paragraph summarizing source 1 A paragraph responding to source 1 A paragraph summarizing source 2 A paragraph responding to source 2 Pattern B: A paragraph summarizing source 1 A paragraph summarizing source 2 A paragraph responding to both of your sources Note that your response paragraph would need to be especially well-developed if you choose the three paragraph approach for your body paragraphs Remember that a summary focuses primarily on main or key points and is always shorter than the original source. If one or both of your sources are long, you will have to work to focus on the overall main ideas in order to fit your summary into one paragraph per source. Since you are spending a full paragraph on each source, though, and since your readers definitely won’t have read your sources, you’ll want to develop a summary of at least ½ to ⅔ of a page double-spaced for each source. After each summary, then respond to the source: What was your opinion about the source? What was helpful or convincing about it? What, if anything, did you feel was missing? Did it adequately explore both the problem and potential solutions? You do not have to use the rhetorical analysis terms of emotion, logic, and credibility, though you are welcome to. Sandwich quotations from your sources within your summary and response paragraphs as needed to support your points. Conclusion (1-2 paragraphs): Your Solution Ok, you have stated the problem and reviewed some other sources that discuss the problem. Now, how would you propose addressing or “solving” this problem? Of course, addressing the problem isn’t always about “solving” it in a simple/straightforward way, and it’s okay, even important, to acknowledge that. You aren't required to use a new source in your conclusion, but if you would like to, you may consider citing more qualitative and/or informal evidence here: Do you know someone with a stake in this issue? Could you interview them? Alternatively or additionally, you could call upon the sources you used previously in your essay to bring their perspectives together as you discuss possible solutions. You could use or modify this template: “X believes that _______ would solve this because _______ and Y believes that _______ would be better because _______. However, I suggest that we _______.” Remember to include a Works Cited page. This is especially important since you chose your own sources, and I need to know how to find them. Remember to write transitions between each section. An introduction with a carefully chosen and interesting hook as well as any necessary background information. A one to two sentence thesis statement that answers the prompt, makes a specific claim, and is correctly positioned in the final sentence(s) of the introduction. Body paragraphs with clear topic sentences and thoughtfully developed supporting evidence/examples from the source. At least one body paragraph should summarize your first source, at least one body paragraph summarize your second source, and one to two body paragraphs should respond to their arguments. A conclusion that discusses a solution to the problem and makes the stakes of the problem clear. A well-organized and well-developed essay displaying the student’s critical thinking about the topic and thesis; the essay meets the assignment guidelines. Appropriate in-text citations, Works Cited list, and ethical use of summary, paraphrase, and quotation (avoids plagiarism). Correct punctuation and no pattern of grammar errors; the essay has been carefully proofread and uses MLA formatting. The essay has an original title. Sentences that convey a clear message and meaning.